- About SIDS
- BIODIVERSITY .:
- CLIMATE CHANGE .:
- Disaster Risk Reduction DRR
- Coastal and Marine Resources
- FOOD SECURITY AND NUTRITION
- GENDER EQUALITY AND WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT
- HEALTH AND NCDS
- INVASIVE ALIEN SPECIES
- MANAGEMENT OF WASTE
- MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION, INCLUDING PARTNERSHIPS
- MONITORING AND ACCOUNTABILITY
- OCEANS AND SEAS
- SIDS PRIORITIES FOR THE POST-2015 AGENDA
- SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
- SUSTAINED AND SUSTAINABLE
- SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION
- SUSTAINABLE ENERGY
- SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT
- WATER AND SANITATION
- Country Profiles
- AIMS Region
- Caribbean Region
- Pacific Region
Samoa13° 48' 0" S, 171° 46' 58.8" W
Capital Based Focal Point:
Ministry of Economy & Development
Tel. 685 34 333
Fax. 685 21 312
|Net enrollment ratio in primary education||92.2||95.59999999999999||99.3||99.3||99.099999999999994||MDG Database|
|Seats held by women in national parliament, percentage||8.2||8.2||6.1||6.1||6.1||6.1||6.1||6.1||8.2||8.2||8.2||UN Stats (MDGs indicators)|
|Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)||98.59999999999999||98.7||World Bank|
|Agricultural land (1000 Ha)||63||63||65||65||65||66||66||66||66||FAO|
|Forest area (sq km)||1,710||1,710||1,710||1,710||1,710||1,710||1,710||1,710||World Bank|
|Forest area (% of land area)||60.42||60.42||60.42||60.42||60.42||60.42||60.42||60.42||World Bank|
|International tourism receipts (% of total exports)||41||39||45||54||70||78||91||Development Data Group, The World Bank. 2008. 2008 World Development Indicators Online. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Available at: http://go.worldbank.org/U0FSM7AQ40.|
|Country population||176,556||177,525||178,187||178,595||178,831||178,966||179,004||178,948||178,869||178,846||World Bank|
|Population annual growth||0.743029||0.547334||0.372212||0.228711||0.132055||0.0754618||0.0212308||0.0312891||0.0441567||0.0128594||World Bank|
|Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births)||World Bank|
|HDI - Human Development Index||UNDP International Human Development Indicators - Calculated based on data from UNDESA (2009d), Barro and Lee (2010), UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2010b), World Bank (2010b) and IMF(2010a).|
|GNI per capita, PPP (current international $)||2,710||2,970||3,130||3,200||3,520||3,630||3,990||4,190||4,480||4,270||World Bank|
|ODA received as % of GNI||11.71||18.050000000000001||14.37||10.36||8.18||10.59||10.69||7.06||7.78||UN Stats (MDGs indicators)|
|Workers remittances (current US$)||45,000,000||45,000,000||45,000,000||45,000,000||87,928,000||109,926,000||108,047,000||119,760,000||135,000,000||UN Data|
|Electric power consumption (kWh)||World Bank|
|Combustible renewables and waste (metric tons of oil equivalent)||World Bank|
|Fossil fuel energy consumption (% of total)||World Bank|
|Carbon dioxide emissions (CO2), thousand metric tons of CO2 (CDIAC)||139||143||143||150||154||158||158||161||MDG Database (CDIAC Data)|
|Improved water source (% of population with access)||89||88||World Bank|
|Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected||0.98||0.98||0.98||1.18||1.18||1.18||1.18||1.18||1.18||1.18||UN Stats (MDGs indicators)|
In 1999, Samoa submitted its First National Communication to the UNFCCC. In 2005, Samoa submitted its National Adaptation Programme of Action.
Samoa is experiencing changes in climate that present risks to both humans and the environment. The greenhouse effect is identified as one of the factors that may be contributing to these changes. Climate change and sea level rise are serious concerns given that 70% of Samoa’s population and infrastructure are located in low-lying coastal areas. Samoa’s economy largely depends upon its natural resources, which rely on favourable climatic conditions for healthy growth. Projected sea level rise could exacerbate coastal erosion, loss of land and property, and displacement of the islands’ inhabitants. The issues or areas regarded as being most vulnerable to climate change effects are the coastal zone, fresh water resources, the agricultural industry and Samoa’s rich native biodiversity. All these are vital components of the biophysical environment from which the Samoans derive their livelihoods and which is currently facing the threat of climate change.
Natural and Environmental Disasters
In 2006, Samoa established its National Disaster Management Plan 2006-2009.
Samoa is exposed to a number of natural and technological hazards. Some of these hazards are seasonal, such as tropical cyclones, floods and droughts. Others are an ever-present threat, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruption, tsunamis, epidemics, industrial hazards, and exotic plant or animal diseases. Changes in tropical cyclone systems increase the risk to life, property and ecosystems. The occurrences of tropical cyclones, long period of droughts and flooding events have affected the source of income of most of the Samoan population. The extreme events of tropical cyclones Ofa (1990) and Val (1991) caused damage costing approximately four times the gross domestic product (GDP) of Samoa. High winds, storm surges and heavy rains severely damaged agricultural plantations, infrastructure and the country’s socio-economic base.
The Government of Samoa has developed fiscal and policy incentives and other measures to encourage environmentally sustainable imports and local products with low waste or degradable waste content. Samoa has also ratified and implemented relevant Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) or conventions relating to waste and pollution control.
Municipal waste in Samoa has several features that make it unique from municipal waste found in larger industrialised nations. As the economy of Samoa develops and moves towards a cash-based, consumer goods society, the volume and complexity of waste products increases. Much of the modern waste stream generated within the wider urban area of Apia may take years to break down, and some components of these wastes may also be harmful or hazardous to humans and the environment. There is concern about the use and disposal of various chemicals, agricultural pesticides and herbicides, empty containers, and household chemicals.
Coastal and Marine Resources
Samoa has a Marine Resources Use Policy, and is working towards the delineation of its EEZ with the assistance of the Commonwealth Secretariat and the SOPAC.
Traditionally Samoans rely on marine resources for their well-being and daily required sustenance. Over 70% of villages are located on the coastal fringe of the islands, and subsistence fishing is a major activity of the inhabitants of such villages. Fisheries also play an extremely important role in the economy of Samoa as well as contributing significantly to the health and nutrition of the people. Fisheries are the major income-earner for the country. Offshore fisheries, in particular the tuna sector, have been recently developed and now are the most valuable among fisheries contributing significantly to Samoa’s economy. However, pressures arising as a result of overfishing, inshore environment degradation, ongoing coastal developments, pollution, and natural disasters have adversely affected the coastal resources and marine environment.
Samoa’s Water Sector Plan, termed ‘Water for Life’, was approved in 2005 and was developed under a Water Sector Support program. Other key outputs of the same program include a Water Resources Use Policy, a Water Services Policy and a Sanitation Policy, all of which were developed between 2008 and 2010.
Access to healthy water sources is a common problem in all Samoan communities, in both coastal and inland areas. Although Samoa receives high rainfall, water resources usually dry up 3 to 6 months of the year as a result of the high permeability of younger rock formations. During this time only three major rivers run, and these have already been fully developed for water catchment. Cyclone damage and continuing land clearance are the major threats affecting the ability of water catchment areas to hold water as well as the quality of the water from remaining streams.
Samoa has an active Land Use Policy. In addition, a Land Task Force was set up in 2006 to consider land reforms and to ensure that there is access to development on an equitable basis within a framework of customary ownership.
Land is central to the economic and cultural structure of Samoa and land of productive potential is in ample supply. In areas of heavy population concentration, however, shortages of land under customary land tenure are becoming more evident and increase pressure to develop land of marginal value for village sector production. An increasing number of village communities are experiencing floodwater inundation in new areas of their land. These problems are worsened by other human activities such as deforestation in the areas located uphill and inland. Forest and trees and their role in watershed management, environmental protection, provision of wood and non-timber resources, and as a reserve of biodiversity are highly vulnerable to the drought season, facing increasing risk of forest fires.
The Samoa Energy Policy was adopted in 2008.
The energy sector is one the fastest growing sectors of the Samoan economy. The commercial energy sector in Samoa has expanded rapidly over the past ten years. Key components of energy, especially electric power, have shown strong growth each year. The previously dominant traditional energy supply (the non-cash economy supply of wood fuel and coconut residues still used by households and agroindustries) now accounts for less than half of Samoa’s primary energy supply. Growth in all forms of commercial energy demand is expected to continue through the next ten years, with highest growth in electricity followed by transport fuels.
The Tourism Development Plan 2002-2006 provides a framework for sustainable tourism development in Samoa.
The tourism industry has grown in recent years to become an important driver of the economy. Visitor arrivals have increased 57% between 1998 and 2008 with record growth recorded in 2006. Tourism earnings have grown 106% between 2001 and 2008 representing 20% of GDP. There has been remarkable growth in room capacity of 206% since the early nineties, albeit another setback is evident in the aftermath of the 2009 tsunami, particularly with the destruction of a large number of community tourism facilities. Assistance through development partners is targeted at the speedy recovery of the sector affected by the tsunami.
In 2009, Samoa submitted its fourth report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Policies and legislations have also been developed and formulated such as the National Biodiversity Policy (NBP), National Deforestation Policy (NDP) and the National Heritage Policy (NHP) which were all approved in 2005. Samoa also has a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, a review of which was carried out in 2007.
Samoa’s terrestrial resources form an important cornerstone of the nations’ livelihood. In the past, the utilisation of some of these resources has mainly been for the purposes of subsistence. However, the development of some of these resources for commercial purposes has become commonplace. There has thus been further emphasis on the sustainable use and development of these resources. The Samoan people rely heavily on biological resources for their economic, social and cultural well-being. The use of natural resources for food, artisanal and medicinal purposes is an essential expression of the Samoan culture. Like its sister island states in the Pacific, Samoa’s geographical isolation from continental land masses and its vast distance from neighbouring island states have made it possible in the past to evolve a significant percentage of plant species endemism with a wide range of indigenous vegetative systems. Unfortunately, Samoa’s biodiversity is highly prone to tropical cyclones, drought, temperature fluctuation and changes in precipitation patterns leading to changes in habitat.
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National focal point for sustainable development:
Ministry of Finance