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Saint Lucia14° 1' 0.12" N, 61° 0' 0" W
|Net enrollment ratio in primary education||98.40000000000001||98.59999999999999||99.5||97.099999999999994||98.8||97.90000000000001||98.8||99||MDG Database|
|Seats held by women in national parliament, percentage||11.1||11.1||11.1||11.1||11.1||11.1||5.6||11.1||11.1||11.1||UN Stats (MDGs indicators)|
|Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)||World Bank|
|Agricultural land (1000 Ha)||16||14||13||13||13||11||12||11||11||FAO|
|Forest area (sq km)||170||170||170||170||170||170||170||170||World Bank|
|Forest area (% of land area)||27.87||27.87||27.87||27.87||27.87||27.87||27.87||27.87||World Bank|
|International tourism receipts (% of total exports)||281||233||207||278||326||356||290||Development Data Group, The World Bank. 2008. 2008 World Development Indicators Online. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Available at: http://go.worldbank.org/U0FSM7AQ40.|
|Country population||155,996||157,897||159,133||160,620||162,434||164,791||166,838||168,338||170,205||172,092||World Bank|
|Population annual growth||1.48082||1.21126||0.779741||0.9301||1.12304||1.44062||1.23453||0.895058||1.10271||1.10271||World Bank|
|Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births)||World Bank|
|HDI - Human Development Index||UNDP International Human Development Indicators - Calculated based on data from UNDESA (2009d), Barro and Lee (2010), UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2010b), World Bank (2010b) and IMF(2010a).|
|GNI per capita, PPP (current international $)||6,930||6,600||6,990||7,080||7,470||7,950||8,830||9,120||9,200||8,860||World Bank|
|ODA received as % of GNI||1.79||2.9||5.0099999999999998||2.26||-2.95||1.31||2.21||2.19||2.04||UN Stats (MDGs indicators)|
|Workers remittances (current US$)||3,000,000||2,000,000||2,000,000||2,000,000||28,650,000||29,460,000||30,308,000||31,087,000||31,087,000||UN Data|
|Electric power consumption (kWh)||World Bank|
|Combustible renewables and waste (metric tons of oil equivalent)||World Bank|
|Fossil fuel energy consumption (% of total)||World Bank|
|Carbon dioxide emissions (CO2), thousand metric tons of CO2 (CDIAC)||330||363||326||359||356||367||352||381||MDG Database (CDIAC Data)|
|Improved water source (% of population with access)||98||98||98||98||98||World Bank|
|Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected||2.04||2.04||2.04||2.04||2.04||2.04||2.04||2.04||2.04||2.04||UN Stats (MDGs indicators)|
Climate Change and Sea Level Rise
St. Lucia has submitted its Initial National Communication on climate change under the UNFCCC in 2001. In addition, there is the National Environmental Management Strategy (NEMS) in St. Lucia. An Environmental Management Policy and Strategy has also been drafted. To date, St. Lucia has not promulgated any legislation dealing specifically with climate change. Work is still underway on to pass the Environmental Management Act. The Ministry of Planning is identified as the agency responsible for climate change activities, while the National Climate Change Committee (NCCC) monitors the implementation of relevant strategies and policies. In addition, the Government of St. Lucia launched its official climate change web site (www.climatechange.gov.lc ) in June 2000. Situated approximately mid-way in the Lesser Antillean Arc in the Caribbean Archipelago, St. Lucia is vulnerable to climate change. Like many other SIDS in the Caribbean region, the impacts of climate change in St. Lucia are reflected in the loss of beaches due to erosion, inundation due to sea level rise, and degradation of various ecosystems. With reduced rainfall and increasing temperatures, droughts may become more common. Changes in climate are likely to impact the tourism and agricultural sectors in particular.
Natural and Environmental Disasters
St. Lucia has embarked on a series of disaster management initiatives: the country undertook a National Assessment on Risk Management in 2006 and the National Emergency Management Plan was subsequently approved in 2007. A second Disaster Management Project has been recently developed as a follow-up to the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) Emergency Recovery and Disaster Management Project. St. Lucia sits on an ancient volcanic ridge with strong volcanic and seismic activity. The island’s weather is influenced by the Atlantic High Pressure system, the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone, tropical waves and cyclones and occasional frontal system. Consequently, St. Lucia is ranked at the top of listed countries experiencing extreme weather impacts. Since Hurricane Allen, which devastated St. Lucia in 1980, the island has been affected by at least six hurricanes and tropical storms, approximately eight major land slippages, the tropical storm Debbie which resulted in major flooding, numerous landslides and damage to major infrastructure, and a series of severe earthquakes, reaching up to a magnitude of 7.3 on the Richter scale.
In St. Lucia, waste management policy and regulation addresses various specific sectors, including: biomedical waste, waste oil, ship waste, asbestos and used lead acid batteries. Traditionally, effective waste management in St Lucia has been confronted by a number of barriers. Modern, efficient collection and disposal systems for solids have been instituted in St. Lucia Since the mid 1990s. Since the same period, the country has also successfully introduced measures to upgrade liquid waste collection, particularly in the heavily populated north of the island. The Deglos Sanitary Landfill and the upgraded Vieux-Fort Solid Waste Management Facility have ensured the progress of waste management in St. Lucia. Presently, St. Lucia has 100% coverage for waste collection through a privatized waste collection service. A waste recycling plan has also been implemented in St. Lucia; however, efforts have been constrained by relatively small quantities generated at a national level, high cost of transportation, and lack of economic instruments to encourage diversion.
Coastal and Marine Resources
St. Lucia has developed the Coastal Habitat Mapping-Bathymetric and topographic mapping of coastal areas. Coastal Zone Management policies and projects have also been established on the island. Protected areas have been built for coral reefs, mangroves and beaches in St. Lucia. The Adaptation Measures in Coastal Zones (GEF) Project has also been implemented. St. Lucia has a coastline of 158 km. The island’s coastal shelf (522 km2) is relatively narrow and drops off sharply on the west coast. St. Lucia has an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of approximately 4700 km2. With a growing population and the growth of new economic sectors, the development of the island’s narrow coastal strip continues to increase. Such development threatens the sustainability of fragile coastal and marine ecosystems. Between 1995 and 2001, reefs along the central west coast lost an average of 47% of coral reef cover in shallow waters and 48% in deeper waters. St. Lucia’s coastal areas are vulnerable to threats from tropical cyclonic activity and possible sea level rise resulting from tectonic and anthropogenically-induced subsidence and stress. The main environmental components of the coastal zone that are likely to be under threat from climate change impacts in St. Lucia are beaches, coral reefs, mangals and the diverse species which occupy these coastal habitats. In addition, non-sustainable waste management activities on the island could likely result in the degredation of coastal and marine resources.
Saint Lucia has formulated a National Water Policy. A National Water and Sewerage Commission (NWSC) and a Water Management Plan have been established as well. A National Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Plan is being drafted. Furthermore, St. Lucia is piloting a rainwater harvesting initiative in the south of the island. Water resources are heavily exploited for municipal and agricultural purposes. It is estimated that present water demand is exceeding the available supply. There are 37 major watershed areas in Saint Lucia, of which a total of seven are important for water supply. Freshwater supplies are highly susceptible to normal climate variability such as natural disasters. During the dry season (usually January to May), water production can be as low as 24.5 million liters per day, compared to approximately 41 million liters per day during the rainy season. The public water supply has been severely impacted in recent years by the pressures of increased demand. Meanwhile, freshwater is largely threatened by ecosystem degradation caused by unsustainable land-use practices. Water is not currently treated as an economic good in St. Lucia; consequently, the efficient use of freshwater is constrained, and there is a lack of water rights, water markets and water pricing for freshwater resources management.
A land resources management policy is included in St. Lucia’s National Action Programme (NAP). Since 2000, St. Lucia has developed a National Land Policy (NLP) which is considered its key land resources management policy. Moreover, efforts have been made to develop the National Action Plan/Strategic Action Plan which will serve as the next stage of the NLP. A comprehensive physical development framework and strategy has not yet been completed in St. Lucia. St. Lucia covers a total area of 61,500 hectares, of which 23,157 hectares are forest cover (16,621 rainforest, 7,515 dry scrub forests, 2,666 in grass and open woodland). The main characteristics of land in Saint Lucia are a rugged terrain and a limited land space. St. Lucia continues to be faced with challenges caused by land degradation and drought. Growing social and economic development demands place heavy pressure particularly on St. Lucia’s agricultural lands and forests. In several parts of the island, the agricultural potential is limited because of risks of erosion, low fertility, stoniness and acidity of soils, and dangers of land slippage.
St. Lucia has a National Energy Policy. A Sustainable Energy Plan has been developed and adopted in the island. Renewable energy technologies and projects have also been introduced to St. Lucia. St. Lucia is a net importer of fossil-based commercial energy with its power and transport sectors completely relying on imported oil derivates. The sustained growth in the economy over the past decade has resulted in a climbing demand for energy on the island. This demand has been further exacerbated by rapid growth in the energy intensive tourism sector. In response to the various concerns for development and management of the energy sector, St. Lucia has increased the utilization of renewable energy on the island. There has also been an increase in the number of companies offering renewable energy services and technologies on the island. While the renewable energy utilization enhance the island’s energy producing capacity, the availability of commercial energy supplies at reasonable costs and minimized environmental costs is particularly important for St. Lucia to remain competitive with other international tourism destinations.
St. Lucia’s tourism resources management policies are included in its National Land Policy, Coastal Zone Management Policy and in other integrated sectors’ plans. A system of Protected Areas has also been developed. The formulation of a National Physical Development Plan, which includes tourism development, is to be addressed in St. Lucia.Tourism has replaced agriculture as the lead contributor to the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). St. Lucia’s rich natural and cultural assets include scenic landscapes, beaches, waterfalls, forests and histories, and are major attractions for the tourism. With the rapid development of the tourism sector, St. Lucia has simultaneously increased heritage tourism and ecotourism activities such as hiking, bird watching, camping and river bathing. St. Lucia is likely to see impacts on its tourism industry due to climate change through increased infrastructure damage, additional emergency preparedness requirements, higher operating expenses and business interruptions.
St. Lucia submitted its Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity (NBSAP) in 2009. There is a Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use Act for St. Lucia as well. Numerous other biodiversity and biosafety-relevant policies and legislations have also been drafted. The Ministry of Agriculture, Lands, Fisheries and Forestry (MALFF) is the agency with primary responsibility for the sustainable management of biological resources in St. Lucia. The island possesses a high degree of diversity with 1288 species of flowering plants listed, over 150 species of birds, approximately 1,400 beetles and more than 1,000 other invertebrates, approximately 250 reef fish species and 50 coral species. Biological diversity has a significant contribution to the local economy through the use of plants for medicinal purposes and the development of heritage tourism. In addition, St Lucia’s forestry resources contribute to its terrestrial biodiversity and its important roles as a watershed, a habitat for a variety of forms of flora and fauna, and as an eco-tourism resource. St. Lucia is also a sink for GHGs. The current and emerging threats to the country’s biodiversity point to an urgent need to reverse the fast-growing trend of ecosystem destruction and species decline. Under the climate change scenarios, particularly projections of reduced rainfall and increased temperatures, such diversity is expected to be lost as homogeneity in habitats increases. Through various measures, achievements of certain biodiversity reservation projects have been seen on the island.
SUMMARY OF STATEMENTS BY SIDS LEADERS AT THE PLENARY OF THE 2012 THIRD WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (RIO+20)
PREPARED BY OHRLLS SUMMARY The 2012 Third World Summit on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), saw 36 representatives and heads of state from Small Island Developing States (SIDS) take to the floor during the Plenary Session to deliver statements on a range of issues of importance and relevance to them. Of the 36 SIDS representatives, 10 were Heads of State while 10 were Heads of Government making up 26% of the 77 Heads of State and Heads of Government who addressed the Plenary...
Bill | 07 Aug 2012 |
This regional project covers: Antigua & Barbuda, Belize, Grenada, St. Lucia, Trinidad & Tobago. The project will build capacity to reduce GHG emissions in the commercial and residential buildings including appliances, demonstrate technologies to achieve reductions of 20% of GHG emissions and put in place policies or programs to roll out these technologies to the marketplace. The project consists of six components: 1. Establish an Assessment and Monitoring System for Energy...
27 Apr 2013 |
April 2013: The Climate Investment Funds (CIF) is calling for proposals to enhance the involvement of the private sector under the Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) and the Forest Investment Program (FIP). PPCR distributes US$70 million to stimulate innovative programmes and projects enabling the private sector to reduce countries’ exposure to climate risk and uncertainty, while FIP distributes over US$50 million to engage the private sector in REDD+. With respect to the PPCR,...
National focal point for sustainable development:
Ministry of Agriculture, Lands, Fisheries and Forestry