Micronesia, Federated States of

Location

Palikir
Micronesia
6° 55' 0.012" N, 158° 10' 58.8" E

Capital Based Focal Point:

Director
Office of Environment & Emergency Management
Tel. (691) 320-8815

Capital City: 
Palikir
Languages: 
English
Category: Land
Indicator 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source
Agricultural land (1000 Ha) 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.5 FAO
Forest area (sq km) 634 634 634 634 634 634 634 634 World Bank
Forest area (% of land area) 90.56999999999999 90.56999999999999 90.56999999999999 90.56999999999999 90.56999999999999 90.56999999999999 90.56999999999999 90.56999999999999 World Bank
Category: Tourism
Indicator 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source
International tourism receipts (% of total exports) 15 15 17 17 17 17 Development Data Group, The World Bank. 2008. 2008 World Development Indicators Online. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Available at: http://go.worldbank.org/U0FSM7AQ40.
Category: Demographics
Indicator 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source
Country population 107,099 107,284 107,718 108,313 108,914 109,415 109,801 110,123 110,414 110,728 World Bank
Population annual growth 0.126905 0.172588 0.403718 0.550848 0.55334 0.458941 0.352164 0.292829 0.263901 0.283981 World Bank
Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births) World Bank
Category: Social
Indicator 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source
Seats held by women in national parliament, percentage UN Stats (MDGs indicators)
Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above) World Bank
Category: Indices
Indicator 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source
HDI - Human Development Index 0.614 0.614 0.615 0.613 0.612 0.614 UNDP International Human Development Indicators - Calculated based on data from UNDESA (2009d), Barro and Lee (2010), UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2010b), World Bank (2010b) and IMF(2010a).
Category: Economy
Indicator 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source
GNI per capita, PPP (current international $) 2,840 2,810 2,910 2,990 2,960 3,170 3,240 3,350 3,300 3,240 World Bank
ODA received as % of GNI 43.3 59.94 47.7 47.93 36.3 42.92 42.8 45.19 35.88 UN Stats (MDGs indicators)
Category: Energy
Indicator 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source
Electric power consumption (kWh) World Bank
Fossil fuel energy consumption (% of total) World Bank
Category: Climate Change and Sea-level Rise
Indicator 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source
Carbon dioxide emissions (CO2), thousand metric tons of CO2 (CDIAC) 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 62 MDG Database (CDIAC Data)
Category: Biodiversity
Indicator 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source
Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 UN Stats (MDGs indicators)

Climate Change and Sea Level Rise

The FSM has submitted its first National Communication on Climate Change to the UNFCCC. In the 2004-2023 Strategic Development Plan, Strategic Goal 1 under the Environment section recognised the need for mainstreaming climate change into national planning as well as in all economic development activities.

The FSM comprises 607 islands, a total area of 3 million square kilometres covering a total land area of 4,840 square kilometres. With such a huge land and ocean mass and its geographic location in the Pacific region, climate change and its adverse impacts on the environment pose significant challenges to the FSM’s future sustainable development. For this reason, the FSM is one of the countries most directly threatened by long-term global warming resulting from an increased level of greenhouse gases accumulating in the earth’s atmosphere. Regarding the effects of global warming, as a coastal nation, the FSM is particularly vulnerable to accelerated sea level rise. Given the country’s geographic location, future global warming holds the possibility of creating more frequent, intense, or longer-lasting El Nino droughts. Moderate to strong El Nino episodes create drought conditions across the nation, while La Nina events bring heavier than normal rainfall, flooding, and wave and storm surge to the FSM’s islands.

FSM first National Communication on Climate Change
FSM MSI+5 National Assessment Report

Climate Change

The Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) has submitted its First National Communication on Climate Change to the UNFCCC. In the 2004-2023 Strategic Development Plan, Strategic Goal 1 under the Environment section recognised the need for mainstreaming climate change into national planning as well as in all economic development activities.

The FSM comprises of 607 islands with a total area of 3 million square kilometres covering a total land area of 4,840 square kilometres. With such a huge land and ocean mass and with its geographic location in the Pacific region, climate change and its adverse impacts on the environment imposes huge challenges to the FSM’s future sustainable development. For this reason, the FSM is one of the countries most directly threatened by long-term global warming resulting from an increased level of greenhouse gases accumulating in the earth’s atmosphere. As a coastal nation, the FSM is particularly vulnerable to accelerated sea level rise. Because of the country’s geographic location, future global warming holds the possibility of creating more frequent, intense, or longer-lasting El Niño droughts. Moderate to strong El Niño episodes create drought conditions across the nation, while La Niña events bring heavier-than-normal rainfall and flooding along with serious wave events and storm surges to the FSM’s islands.

FSM First National Communication on Climate Change
FSM MSI+5 National Assessment Report

Natural and Environmental Disasters

In September 2005, the FSM government completed a Multi-State Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan (2005-2009).

Throughout its history, the FSM has experienced various emergencies and disasters associated with a wide range of natural and other events. These have inflicted heavy costs in terms of human, material and physical resources, including damage to the environment. They represent a potentially significant obstacle to economic growth and development. Disasters disrupt the daily life of the population and can result in substantial loss of life and property and in social upheaval, causing many people to become homeless, hungry and highly dependent on others for their survival. The situation is often further aggravated by the disruption, dislocation or loss of vital economic production and state infrastructure, including water and power supplies, communication, transportation, and other services.

FSM Country Environmental Analysis - ADB
FSM MSI+5 National Assessment Report

Waste Management

The FSM has a National Solid Waste Management Strategy (NSWMS) for 2010-2014.

No state has a sanitary landfill and most communities lack access to any form of management dump site. As a result, illegal dumping is a major issue. Littering is also a widespread problem. At one time or another, all states have had recycling schemes, notably for aluminium cans, but in all instances these have failed. Currently no states has a waste recycling scheme, but there are some attempts to sort and store scrap metal for later export.

FSM Country Environmental Analysis - ADB
FSM MSI+5 National Assessment Report

Coastal and Marine Resources

The challenge that is currently facing all the FSM States is the formulation of a consistent legal law that protects all near-shore resources of the FSM States.

The marine environment is of enormous importance to the people of the Federated States of Micronesia. The nation’s marine resources are extensive and in many ways central to the future social, cultural, and economic prospects of the FSM. Historically, the inshore and near-shore marine environment is the source of a wide variety of traditional foods. This remains true today. Also, swimming, canoeing and sailing are traditionally popular and remain so for residents of the FSM and tourists alike. Reef resources are critical to artisanal fishing activities. So far, efforts to avoid overfishing reef areas and to eliminate fishing with dynamite, bleach, cyanide, and other poisons have not been successful. Fish stocks in reef areas close to large urban populations have now been seriously depleted.

FSM First National Communication on Climate Change
FSM MSI+5 National Assessment Report

Freshwater Resources

Freshwater resources are precious in the FSM. Despite being blessed with abundant rainfall, water supply is still inadequate in terms of both quality and quantity. The high volcanic islands of the FSM such as Pohnpei and Kosrae receive high annual rainfall and freshwater supplies are collected from surface water runoff. The challenge is more acute in the coral atolls of the nation, which represents the outer island communities, and the rural communities of the main islands. These areas have very limited water storage capacity and are reliant on rainwater to meet the population's freshwater demands. Wells designed to access water from groundwater lenses have been used in the past and are still the major source of water for these communities but have slowly been contaminated due to climate change. Only 31% of the rural population of the FSM has access to safe drinking water, while some 56% of all households use rainwater catchments. Severe shortages of drinking water are common during periods of drought. User pay policies that impose charges for the supply of treated drinking water through centralized systems are adding to the hardships of many families, especially in rural areas.

FSM Country Environmental Analysis - ADB
FSM MSI+5 National Assessment Report

Land Resources

Land ownership is limited by the Constitution to citizens of FSM and property is held in family trusts with rights passed down from generation to generation.

In three FSM States, land resources are generally sufficient to support food production and needs. Farming is predominantly small scale, low in productivity and based mainly on family labour and low adoption of modern technologies. Produce is largely consumed on farm, with limited amounts marketed. Almost every household engages at least part time in agricultural activity. With one exception, the few current commercial fruit and vegetable production units are no larger than 20 acres in size. Subsistence production is based mainly on shifting-cultivation agroforestry systems. The current main values of forests are in their support of subsistence agroforestry activities, and for their ecological and environmental protection roles, not as a source of commercial timber. The dominant forest areas of the central islands protect watersheds and prevent excessive erosion. Scattered use of forest resources occur throughout FSM, mostly for construction in subsistence homesteads and for firewood, but also for furniture. Mangrove timber is used for handicrafts and furniture.

FSM First National Communication on Climate Change
FSM MSI+5 National Assessment Report

Energy Resources

An Energy Policy, Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy Efficiency (EE) actions plans are being developed.

The FSM is overwhelming dependent on imported petroleum fuels for commercial energy. Approximately 86% of gross energy supply is generated from petroleum and 14% from biomass, used for cooking. Solar energy provides considerably less than 1% of the total. There are electric power systems on the principal islands of all four FSM states, and much smaller systems on some outer islands of the Chuuk and Yap states. However, nearly 70% of FSM homes have no electricity and over 70% of homes use kerosene for cooking. Where it is available, the charges for electricity are high due to inefficient generation equipment and high fuel prices. This contributes to hardship for families and individuals. To address these challenges, a priority objective of the FSM national government is now the provision of an adequate and secure supply of energy to meet the needs of households, commerce and industry.

FSM National Energy Assessment Report
FSM Country Environmental Analysis - ADB
FSM MSI+5 National Assessment Report

Tourism

The 2004-2023 FSM Strategic Development Plan recognizes tourism as a key sector for economic growth.

Tourism is an infant industry in the FSM and, despite the recognition placed on tourism as a productive and growing sector, it continues to under-perform due to a host of factors including the lack of infrastructure, poor service and lack of promotion. This remains true  even though tourism is endorsed as a dominant sector that would enable growth and development of the economy. Each State is now represented in the PATA (Pacific Air Travel Association) Micronesian Chapter, which is the only active regional tourist association offering support and technical assistance for the development of international markets. Current tourist activity emphasizes ecotourism, adventure tourism, and cultural tourism, and has centered largely on the attraction of marine, coastal and reef resources, wreck dives, and the special prehistoric cultural attractions of the Lelu Ruins in Kosrae and Nan Madol Ruins in Pohnpei.

FSM MSI+5 National Assessment Report
FSM First National Communication on Climate Change

Biodiversity

The FSM has submitted its Fourth National Report on Biodiversity to the Commission on Biological Diversity (CBD). The FSM also has a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan and four State Biodiversity Strategy Action Plans. Furthermore, through the Micronesian Challenge, the FSM is committed to conserve at least 30% of nearshore marine resources and 20% of terrestrial resources by 2020.

The unique and fragile ecosystems and the plethora of species in the FSM have, by all relevant international conservation measures, produced one of the world’s singular biodiversity hotspots. The extensive reef and forest biomes of the FSM also provide a major sink capacity for the world’s total human-sourced greenhouse gas emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and other greenhouse gases, while at the same time are under severe and mounting global climate change pressures. Reefs and forests are not only essential to communal and rural survival – more than 80% of the FSM population lives in rural areas – they are also the linchpin of economic development. Terrestrial ecosystems produce the largest local inputs to the macroeconomic fabric of society in the form of betelnut, sakau, citrus and various staple root crops. Marine ecosystems are even more vital: nearshore and offshore fisheries bring in tens of millions of dollars annually to the functioning micro and macroeconomic frameworks. Ecological pressures are therefore are on the upswing.

FSM Fourth National Report on Biodiversity to the CBD
FSM MSI+5 National Assessment Report
Country Strategies: 
Title Programme Name Programme Description Year
Food Security Strategy - Federated States of Micronesia Climate Change in the Federated States of Micronesia: Food and Water Security, Climate Risk Management and Adaptive Strategies 2010
Energy Strategy - Federated States of Micronesia Pacific Regional Energy Assessment: Federated States of Micronesia National Report 2004
UNFCCC Nat Comm - Federated States of Micronesia Climate change national communication Strategy Description 2007
NSDS - Federated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia National Assessment Report 2006
NBSAP - Federated States of Micronesia Fourth National Report: Implementation of Article 6 of the Convention on Biological Diversity Strategy Description 2010
Bill | 27 Aug 2012
PREPARED BY OHRLLS   SUMMARY The 2012 Third World Summit on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), saw 36 representatives and heads of state from Small Island Developing States (SIDS) take to the floor during the Plenary Session to deliver statements on a range of issues of importance and relevance to them. Of the 36 SIDS representatives, 10 were Heads of State while 10 were Heads of Government making up 26% of the 77 Heads of State and Heads of Government who addressed the Plenary...
14 May 2013 | SIDS Policy and Practice
13 May 2013: The project titled ‘Ridge to Reef – Community to Catchment’, which is funded by the Global Environment Facility’s (GEF) ‘Implementing Sustainable Water Resources and Wastewater Management in Pacific Island Countries’ project (GEF Pacific IWRM Project), has reported improved national coordination in the water and sanitation sectors and enhanced community involvement in water resource management in the Pohnpei and Chuuk states, part of the Federated...
03 May 2013 | SIDS Policy and Practice
2 May 2013: A new analysis by the World Bank Group shows that 20 fragile and conflict-affected countries have met one or more targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in the past two years, since their analysis in 2011. The countries are meeting or are on track to meet goals to reduce extreme poverty, reach gender equality in primary education, improve access to water, and reduce maternal mortality. According to the Bank, this progress is due to better monitoring and accelerated...
External Resources: 

Coming soon.

National focal point for sustainable development: 
Department of Economic Affairs