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Haiti18° 34' 0.12" N, 72° 17' 60" W
Capital Based Focal Point:
Ministère de l'Environnement
Tel. 509 245-7572/9309
Fax. 509 245-7360
French, Haitian Creole
|Net enrollment ratio in primary education||MDG Database|
|Seats held by women in national parliament, percentage||3.6||3.6||3.6||3.6||3.6||3.6||4.1||4.1||4.1||4.1||UN Stats (MDGs indicators)|
|Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)||World Bank|
|Agricultural land (1000 Ha)||1,710||1,690||1,690||1,690||1,690||1,690||1,690||1,890||1,790||FAO|
|Forest area (sq km)||1,090||1,082||1,074||1,066||1,058||1,050||1,042||1,034||World Bank|
|Forest area (% of land area)||3.96||3.93||3.9||3.87||3.84||3.81||3.78||3.75||World Bank|
|International tourism receipts (% of total exports)||128||105||108||96||87||80||135||Development Data Group, The World Bank. 2008. 2008 World Development Indicators Online. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Available at: http://go.worldbank.org/U0FSM7AQ40.|
|Country population||8,647,870||8,801,980||8,954,220||9,105,490||9,257,100||9,409,990||9,564,450||9,720,090||9,876,400||10,032,600||World Bank|
|Population annual growth||1.8242||1.76634||1.71486||1.67517||1.65132||1.63816||1.6281||1.61415||1.59538||1.56934||World Bank|
|Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births)||450||350||300||World Bank|
|HDI - Human Development Index||0.406||0.407||0.404||0.406||0.41||0.404||UNDP International Human Development Indicators - Calculated based on data from UNDESA (2009d), Barro and Lee (2010), UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2010b), World Bank (2010b) and IMF(2010a).|
|GNI per capita, PPP (current international $)||World Bank|
|ODA received as % of GNI||5.38||4.65||4.48||7.13||7.62||9.7||11.73||11.45||13.09||UN Stats (MDGs indicators)|
|Workers remittances (current US$)||578,000,000||624,000,000||676,000,000||811,000,000||931,500,000||985,300,000||1,062,870,000||1,222,090,000||1,300,000,000||UN Data|
|Electric power consumption (kWh)||303||303||268||256||256||343||351||294||World Bank|
|Combustible renewables and waste (metric tons of oil equivalent)||1,517||1,518||1,710||1,651||1,631||1,898||1,945||1,992||World Bank|
|Fossil fuel energy consumption (% of total)||23.33||24.88||24.95||24.57||27.71||25.69||25.68||27.8||World Bank|
|Carbon dioxide emissions (CO2), thousand metric tons of CO2 (CDIAC)||1,368||1,569||1,826||1,734||1,988||2,076||2,120||2,398||MDG Database (CDIAC Data)|
|Improved water source (% of population with access)||55||60||63||World Bank|
|Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected||0.27||0.27||0.27||0.27||0.27||0.27||0.27||0.27||0.27||0.27||UN Stats (MDGs indicators)|
Climate Change and Sea Level Rise
Haiti submitted its First National Report to the Conference of Parties (COP) in 1998, and its Initial National Communication to the UNFCCC in 2001. Haiti is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the North and by the Caribbean Sea to the West and the South. Due to high sensitivity to climatic stress, the agricultural sector is vulnerable to climate changes, with soils and water resources, along with coastal zones likely to be adversely affected by climate change. The dramatic reduction of predicted rainfall caused by climate change in the country will have negative impacts on crops irrigation and the overall productivity of the land. This will likely increase Haiti’s dependence on food imports. Due to climate change, the availability of fresh drinking water is also threatened by rainfall reduction.
Natural and Environmental Hazards
Haiti has recently signed the agreement to join the Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency (CDEMA) seeking aid and cooperation mechanism in the area of disaster management at the regional level. Located in the Caribbean basin, cyclones, floods, droughts, and earthquakes together with tsunamis’ are the main natural disasters to impact Haiti. The country was severely devastated following the 7.0 magnitude earthquake on January 12 of 2010. Haiti’s high level of poverty, combined with frequent natural disasters, political instability, international dependence on aid, and the lack of disaster preparedness were highlighted by this disaster. The effects of the earthquake have obliterated Haiti’s socio-political structure, recovery construction and much of the country’s capital infrastructure.
The rapid increase in migration of the rural population to cities in recent years has aggravated the situation of waste management in Haiti, with the elimination of solid waste being one of the major challenges facing the municipal government. Household waste and garbage in Haiti is not treated by reliable and technologically approved systems. There are no organized landfills at the national level, with waste collection generally being the responsibility of the town halls, and is carried out to vastly different standards from one municipal health unit to the next. Household waste and garbage are deposited in open dumps during the collection. The report of “Status of Haiti NBSAP” emphasized the management of medical waste in particular.
Marine and Coastal Resources
Coastal and marine resources are managed by integrated policies, incorporating watershed and coastal areas. There is also a trans-boundary cooperation project in integrated management of watersheds and coastal areas between Haiti and its neighbouring country Dominican Republic. Making up the eastern side of Hispaniola, the Haitian coastline covers 1535 km before giving way to a relatively narrow continental shelf of 5000 km2. Like other Caribbean island countries, Haiti is rich in coastal and marine resources. However, pollution due to waste and human activities has resulted in erosion along the coastal areas, with the disposal of solid and liquid waste disrupting the local aquatic ecosystem.
Although there are good fresh water resources in Haiti, they are not well located, with nearly 60% of freshwater resources being represented by five major rivers. Groundwater sources appear to be relatively abundant in the country but currently underused due to the high cost of equipment needed to access them. There is a lack of access to safe water supply of drinking water, particularly on the land border of Haiti. In the arid northwest, the lack of safe water causes people to consume brackish water, which often results in negative health impacts. This lack of access to safe drinking water was exacerbated by the 2010 earthquake. Surface water contamination from domestic and industrial sources occurs throughout the country especially near heavily populated areas.
Haiti signed the International Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) in 1994 and it was ratified by Parliament in 1996.Mountains occupy 75% of the country and their orientation greatly influences local rainfall and insulation regimes. Haiti’s soils are very diverse, and consist of igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks and limestone. In the mountains, soils were developed on a base of basalt and limestone. Haiti attaches great importance to the agricultural sector, with 43% of the country's land being devoted to this activity. In contrast, the space occupied by forests is roughly only 2%.
The main energy sources in Haiti are wood, bagasse, water and petroleum products. 80% of the country’s energy consumption comes from local resources, among these 70% from wood, 5% from water, 4% from bagasse, with the remaining 20% being made up of imported oil products. The consumption of wood products as a main energy source is one of the main causes of deforestation in Haiti.
There is a tourism master plan in Haiti, entitled “Strategic Thrusts” which is the guiding framework for the tourism sector.Currently, the share of tourism in GDP amounts to only 3.5%, but this sector is considered a growth industry and development continues. Famous tourist sites include the National Historical Park of the North, the Arcadin Coast northwest of Port-au-Prince, the Old Town Center of Jacmel and Port-Salut and the Pointe-Sable beach. The promotion of eco-tourism has been placed into the country’s tourism strategy. Sites with great potential of ecotourism will be identified in collaboration with local entrepreneurs and Territorial collectivities. In the North-East of Haiti, biodiversity conservation is being integrated into a tourism strategy.
The Ministry of Environment (MDE) and the Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Rural Development are mainly charged of the management of environment and sustainable development related issues.Haiti is one of the richest countries in the Caribbean in terms of biological diversity, but currently there is insufficient protection and conservation of biodiversity resources in the country. In 1999, a biological inventory of one offshore island called Navassa found more than 800 species, many of which may not exist anywhere else in the world, and as many as 250 that might be entirely new to science. However, the mainland and satellite islands reflect a high degree of endemism, with paleontological evidence indicating that a major portion of the mammal diversity of Haiti has gone extinct, largely represented by rodents, ground sloths, monkey and shrews.
02 Aug 2012 |
19 July 2012: Germanwatch launched a website addressing loss and damage caused by climate change, aiming to support Least Developed Countries (LDCs) in calling for action on the issue. The topic is increasingly relevant for LDCs, Germanwatch notes, as agreement to deliver mitigation commitments in line with staying below 2°C/1.5°C has not been yet achieved. The website is part of the “Loss and Damage in Vulnerable Countries Initiative,” which runs from February 2012 through March...
02 Aug 2012 |
July 2012: The Caribbean Natural Resources Institute (CANARI) has released the first issue of its quarterly newsletter for the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF) in the Caribbean islands, titled “Capacité.” The newsletter provides information on CANARI’s work in the region, and shares lessons learned and best practices from CEPF-supported projects and related initiatives. The newsletter includes articles on: the role of the CEPF in participating countries (Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas,...
31 Jul 2012 |
20 July 2012: The UNFCCC Secretariat organized a technical workshop to address water, climate change impacts and adaptation strategies under the Nairobi Work Programme on Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change. The meeting was held in Mexico City, Mexico, from 18-20 July 2012. The workshop aimed at assisting parties, in particular developing countries, including the least developed countries (LDCs) and small island developing Sates (SIDS), to improve and develop shared...