Fiji

Location

Suva
Fiji
18° 7' 59.88" S, 178° 25' 1.2" E

Capital Based Focal Point:

Ministry of Finance & National Planning
Strategic Planning Office
Tel. (679) 3313 411
Fax. (679) 3304 809

Capital City: 
Suva
Languages: 
English, Bau Fijian, and Fiji Hindi
Category: Social
Indicator 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source
Net enrollment ratio in primary education 94.8 96 95.90000000000001 94.2 MDG Database
Seats held by women in national parliament, percentage 11.3 5.7 5.7 5.7 8.5 8.5 UN Stats (MDGs indicators)
Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above) World Bank
Category: Land
Indicator 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source
Agricultural land (1000 Ha) 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 428 FAO
Forest area (sq km) 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 World Bank
Forest area (% of land area) 54.73 54.73 54.73 54.73 54.73 54.73 54.73 54.73 World Bank
Category: Tourism
Indicator 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source
International tourism receipts (% of total exports) 285 309 379 490 585 676 636 Development Data Group, The World Bank. 2008. 2008 World Development Indicators Online. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Available at: http://go.worldbank.org/U0FSM7AQ40.
Category: Demographics
Indicator 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source
Country population 801,681 807,329 812,658 817,791 822,885 828,046 833,330 838,699 844,046 849,218 World Bank
Population annual growth 0.737795 0.702049 0.657909 0.629645 0.620966 0.625225 0.636101 0.642216 0.635511 0.610893 World Bank
Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births) 32 28 26 World Bank
Category: Indices
Indicator 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source
HDI - Human Development Index 0.651 0.667 0.667 0.664 0.667 0.667 0.669 UNDP International Human Development Indicators - Calculated based on data from UNDESA (2009d), Barro and Lee (2010), UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2010b), World Bank (2010b) and IMF(2010a).
Category: Economy
Indicator 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source
GNI per capita, PPP (current international $) 3,560 3,580 3,790 3,860 4,150 4,360 4,310 4,470 4,620 4,530 World Bank
ODA received as % of GNI 1.7 1.58 1.85 2.21 2.4 2.2 1.83 1.55 1.32 UN Stats (MDGs indicators)
Workers remittances (current US$) 24,000,000 24,000,000 24,000,000 123,000,000 171,900,000 184,200,000 165,490,000 165,490,000 175,000,000 UN Data
Category: Energy
Indicator 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source
Electric power consumption (kWh) World Bank
Combustible renewables and waste (metric tons of oil equivalent) World Bank
Fossil fuel energy consumption (% of total) World Bank
Category: Climate Change and Sea-level Rise
Indicator 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source
Carbon dioxide emissions (CO2), thousand metric tons of CO2 (CDIAC) 862 1,122 858 1,657 1,889 1,635 1,566 1,459 MDG Database (CDIAC Data)
Category: Freshwater
Indicator 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source
Improved water source (% of population with access) World Bank
Category: Biodiversity
Indicator 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source
Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 UN Stats (MDGs indicators)

Climate change

In 2005, Fiji submitted its First National Communication on Climate Change to the UNFCCC.

Fiji’s economy and its people, like other small island States, are susceptible to the impacts of climate change. Climate change is beginning to have substantial and widespread impacts on Fiji, affecting sectors as varied as health, coastal infrastructure, water resources, agriculture, forestry and fisheries. As a predominantly agriculture-based economy, the impact is being felt more by the rural populace which depends upon the agricultural sector for generating livelihood. The increasing incidence and intensity of droughts, cyclones and flooding resulting from climate change is taking its toll on the economy and on the lives of ordinary citizens.

Natural and Environmental Disasters

Fiji has an active National Disaster Management Plan and a Natural Disaster Management Act.

Fiji is located in one of the most vulnerable locations for natural and environmental disasters in the world. An average of one to two cyclones hit the country every year and floods and flash floods resulting from climate change have become a common occurrence. Over the last decade, the damage caused by tropical cyclones alone has been estimated at more than USD $500 million and more than 100 lives have been lost. Tropical Cyclone Ami, which struck the Northern and Eastern Divisions in 2003, caused social and economic losses of more than USD $100 million, while the floods in April 2004 caused damages estimated at more than USD $30 million. An urgent and critical area for further development is in reducing Fiji’s vulnerability to geological hazards. The catastrophic consequences of such events coupled with their unpredictability translate into a need for constant preparedness.

Waste Management

Fiji has a National Solid Waste Management Strategy, which was approved in 2006, an Environment Management Act, which was approved in 2005, and a National Liquid Waste Management Strategy, which was approved in 2007.

The natural environment is an integral part of Fiji’s products and services and the quality of nature plays a significant role in the success of any socioeconomic development. As such, the generation and disposal of waste has a direct and an indirect impact on the socioeconomic development of the country. The environmental effects of poor wastewater management are becoming evident in many parts of the country. Coastal environments near urban areas, such as Suva Lagoon, are subject to contaminant wastewater from industry, domestic waste, urban storm water and shipping-related activities. High concentrations of nutrients and micro-organisms related to sewage contamination appear to be the major problem.

Coastal and Marine Resources

Fiji has a Fisheries Act in place toward protecting its coastal and marine resources.

The coastal areas of Fiji are of vital importance since most urban centres and a vast majority of villages are located on the shore, as is much of the population, agricultural sector, industry and commerce. Rapid coastal development and increasing utilisation of coastal resources has resulted in various impacts on the coastal environment, such as loss of habitat and biodiversity, inappropriate solid waste management, mismanagement of chemical wastes, pollution of air and waterways, and land degradation, among other problems. The fisheries sector accounts for 2.7% of GDP and 9.7% of domestic export earnings annually on average. Fishing in Fiji generates an estimated 22,000mt annually, while the average in the last 10 years has topped 24,000mt. Industrial fisheries contribute 84% of total export earnings while artisanal fisheries contribute 16% of export earnings.

Freshwater Resources

Fiji has a Watershed Management Programme and is developing a Water Management Policy.

The consistent supply of clean, safe piped water and efficient sewerage services are crucial for both rural and urban sectors in inducing greater economic activity and commercial developments. Fiji has an abundance of water resources. However, there are persistent problems with the supply of piped water. Approximately 75 percent of Fiji’s population has access to piped water, while about 25 percent of the population has access to sewerage facilities.

Land Resources

Fiji’s First and Second National Reports on UNCCD Implementation were submitted in 2000 and 2002 respectively. Fiji’s Draft National Action Plan on Combating Desertification was completed in 2006. Fiji also has a National Rural Land Use policy and plan, as well as a Forest Policy and National Forest Programme.

Land is an important factor in the development of the economy. The burgeoning population over the past 40 years has increased demand for agricultural land and has consequently put a significant amount of pressure on arable land availability. This has resulted in land degradation, reduced productivity, lower yields, reduced food security and an increase in poverty. Much of Fiji’s arable land has been taken up for housing, industrial and commercial developments. In Fiji, agriculture is generally organized along commercial lines, although the subsistence sector remains important. Large-scale agriculture comprises mainly palm oil, coconut, sugarcane, cocoa and coffee plantations, and beef cattle. Fiji’s forest resources cover an area of approximately 870,000 hectares, or about 47 percent of Fiji’s total land area. Plantation forests, mainly pine and mahogany, account for 13 percent of total forest area. Deforestation is becoming a threat to Fiji’s biodiversity. The forestry sector on average accounts for 1.2% of GDP and 4.1% of export earnings.

Energy Resources

In 2006, the Government of Fiji approved the country’s National Energy Policy. In 2004, Fiji prepared its National Energy Assessment.

Fiji, like any other country in the region, is heavily dependent on imported fuel to meet a major component of its energy demand. As such, Fiji is vulnerable to the continuous fluctuation of world crude oil prices. The contribution of the electricity sector to GDP is about 3.6%. Around 66.8% of the country’s electricity requirements are met from renewable energy sources, which includes 62.1% hydro, 0.6% wind and other renewable resources, and 4.1% biomass. Imported petroleum for diesel backup generators meets the remaining balance of 33.2%. In terms of final energy consumption, the transport sector has continually consumed just over 40% of the total energy supplied. This is followed by the commercial, industrial and domestic sectors. 

Tourism

Fiji has an active Tourism Development Plan 2007-2016 to promote sustainable development of the tourism sector.

Tourism in Fiji encompasses a myriad of partnerships between a diverse range of private sector businesses, communities and government. It has grown steadily over the past few years, following its recovery from a significant decline after the 2000 coup with growth in visitor numbers and economic contribution and a strong investment in infrastructure. The 2007 census recorded that 21,460 people, or 2.6% of the total population, are working in the tourism industry. The industry contributes around 18.4 % of GDP, with $741.7 million earnings in 2006 and estimated tax revenue to the government of $140 million.

Biodiversity

Fiji has submitted its Fourth National Report to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity, and also has a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan.

Fiji is a natural resource-based economy that thrives on the exploitation of natural resources for its economic development. Land- and marine-based natural resources have been harvested for exports to improve Fiji’s foreign reserves for national economic development. There are drawbacks associated with all of these activities. Habitat destruction in the coastal areas resulting from tourism development is a major threat to Fiji’s biodiversity in mangrove forests, estuaries, reef and foreshore ecosystems. Unplanned and uncoordinated tourism activities can become a major threat to Fiji’s biodiversity. A variety of development efforts in different sectors have accumulated impacts that put stress on Fiji’s biodiversity, leading to the loss of important ecosystems. Invasive species are another threat to Fiji’s biodiversity. Most of Fiji’s endemic species are threatened from native and introduced invasive species. There are also some newfound species which relevant stakeholders are working to preserve and multiply.

Country Strategies: 
Title Programme Name Programme Description Year
Energy Strategy - Fiji Pacific Regional Energy Assessment: Fiji National Report Strategy Description 2004
UNFCCC Nat Comm - Fiji Fiji's First national communication under the Framework Convention on Climate Change 2005. Strategy Description 2006
NBSAP - Fiji Fiji’s Fourth National Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity Strategy Description 2010
NSDS - Fiji Fiji National Assessment Report 2006
Bill | 15 Jul 2013
12 July 2013: The first-ever Joint Meeting of the Pacific Platform for Disaster Risk Management (PPDRM) and Pacific Climate Change Roundtable (PCCR) convened under the theme 'Strengthening Resilience: An Integrated Regional Strategy for Disaster Risk Management and Climate Change in the Pacific.' The meeting was organized by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC), UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) and Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (...
Bill | 15 Jul 2013
12 July 2013: The Pacific Regional Preparatory Meeting for the Third International Conference on Small Island Developing States (SIDS) adopted the Nadi Draft Outcome Document, which will represent the Pacific region's contribution to the Inter-regional Preparatory Meeting for the 2014 Conference. The meeting, held in Nadi, Fiji, from 10-12 July 2013, was the second of three regional meetings in preparation for the Conference, which will take place in Apia, Samoa, in September 2014....
Bill | 12 Jul 2013
Highlights for Friday, 12 July 2013 The Pacific Regional Preparatory Meeting for the 2014 Third International Conference on Small Island Developing States (SIDS) concluded Friday, 12 July 2013 in Nadi, Fiji. Member States continued their discussions with Major Groups and development partners through Friday morning, as Chair Amena Yauvoli (Fiji) invited participants to discuss the presentations made by Major Groups and development partners the previous day. Delegates praised the quality of...
External Resources: 
Title Programme Description Year
Online Portal of the Government of Fiji
Fiji Ministry of Foreign Affairs