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Dominica15° 18' 0" N, 61° 23' 60" W
|Net enrollment ratio in primary education||97.40000000000001||82.59999999999999||99.099999999999994||97.7||93.7||87.7||82||MDG Database|
|Seats held by women in national parliament, percentage||9.4||18.8||18.8||18.8||19.4||12.9||12.9||16.1||18.8||14.3||UN Stats (MDGs indicators)|
|Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)||World Bank|
|Agricultural land (1000 Ha)||21||22||22||23||23||23||23||23||23||FAO|
|Forest area (sq km)||473||471||468||465||463||460||457||455||World Bank|
|Forest area (% of land area)||63.07||62.8||62.4||62||61.73||61.33||60.93||60.67||World Bank|
|International tourism receipts (% of total exports)||48||46||46||52||61||56||68||Development Data Group, The World Bank. 2008. 2008 World Development Indicators Online. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Available at: http://go.worldbank.org/U0FSM7AQ40.|
|Country population||71,326||71,079||71,079||71,212.80000000000291||71,471||72,000||72,395.60000000000582||72,793.39999999999418||73,193.39999999999418||73,595.60000000000582||World Bank|
|Population annual growth||0.285602||0.346898||0.188104||0.36188||0.737435||0.547979||0.547979||0.547979||0.547979||World Bank|
|Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births)||World Bank|
|HDI - Human Development Index||UNDP International Human Development Indicators - Calculated based on data from UNDESA (2009d), Barro and Lee (2010), UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2010b), World Bank (2010b) and IMF(2010a).|
|GNI per capita, PPP (current international $)||5,310||5,560||5,330||5,600||6,000||6,510||7,490||8,000||8,430||8,460||World Bank|
|ODA received as % of GNI||6.55||8.09||12.9||4.69||11.61||7.7||6.91||5.97||6.29||UN Stats (MDGs indicators)|
|Workers remittances (current US$)||3,000,000||4,000,000||4,000,000||4,000,000||23,150,000||24,978,000||25,371,000||25,978,000||30,000,000||UN Data|
|Electric power consumption (kWh)||World Bank|
|Combustible renewables and waste (metric tons of oil equivalent)||World Bank|
|Fossil fuel energy consumption (% of total)||World Bank|
|Carbon dioxide emissions (CO2), thousand metric tons of CO2 (CDIAC)||103||114||103||114||106||114||117||121||MDG Database (CDIAC Data)|
|Improved water source (% of population with access)||95||97||97||95||World Bank|
|Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected||3.69||3.69||3.69||3.69||3.69||3.69||3.69||3.69||3.69||3.69||UN Stats (MDGs indicators)|
Climate Change and Sea Level Rise
In 2001, Dominica submitted its Initial National Communication to the UNFCCC. Dominica also has a National Environmental Management Strategy and Action Plan (NEMP). Consequences of climate change have become more apparent in Dominica. Because most of the population centers are along the coast, a rise in sea level related to the climate change will result in the displacement of a large proportion of the population. Impacts from climate change are considered the main threats to biodiversity in this island country. A comprehensive management system containing multi-sectoral measures is being considered by the Government.
Natural and Environmental Disasters
Since 2004, Dominica has been drafting an updated Emergency Management Act (EMA), which is yet to be enacted. In the absence of a national hazard mitigation policy and plan, supportive components of various projects have addressed issues concerning the protection of Dominica’s biodiversity from the natural and environmental disasters. To this end, Dominica’s Office of Disaster Management (ODM) has been assigned to cooperate with various stakeholders and to permit development of precautionary plans and policies for special areas. Located within the Atlantic hurricane belt, the Commonwealth Vulnerability Index rates Dominica as having the sixth most vulnerable economy in the world to external shocks and natural hazards out of the 111countries evaluated, and the most vulnerable in the Caribbean. It is estimated that over 90% of the population live within 5 kilometers of seismic activity zones. Seismic activity, tropical storms and hurricanes and their attendant impacts are the primary national hazards affecting the island.
In Dominica, the National Solid Waste Management System is operated by the Solid Waste Management Corporation, a statutory entity established by the Solid Waste Management Corporation Act 17 of 1996. Some commercial enterprises are also involved in wastewater recycling programmes under special tax concessions policies. The Corporation is charged with the responsibility of providing facilities for the collection, transport, treatment and disposal of solid waste and matters incidental thereto. It is also the executing agency for the National Component of the OECS Solid and Ship-Generated Waste Management Project. A gasification unit has been procured by the Corporation in the Princess Margaret Hospital in Dominica to treat biomedical waste in a more environmentally safe manner. The Corporation currently provides waste collection and transport services to the entire western coast of the island. The waste treatment operation is mainly taken in the two existing landfills namely the Stockfarm Landfill, which received approximately 75% of waste, and the Portsouth Landfill, which received 25%. The skip system continues to be the main facility for the collection and transportation of general waste. There are still small-scale, illegal open dumps scattered in the rural areas. The disposal of untreated sewerage and solid waste along the coast is a prime source of marine pollution, which can disease human beings and kill off coral reefs and sea grass beds.
Coastal and Marine Resources
A coastal zone management plan is in formulation in Dominica. Exploitation of living marine resources is under the regulation of the fisheries laws. Dominica has 153 km (95 miles) of coastline adjoined to a 715 sq. km coastal shelf. The critical ecosystems in the coastal areas consist of beaches, coral reefs, river estuaries, sea grass beds, mangroves/wetlands, fish, seaweeds, turtles, crustaceans, porifera, echinoderms and mollusks, seabirds and a variety of marine mammals including several species of whales and dolphins. The Cabrits National Park, one of three national parks in Dominica, has included a marine component since its establishment in 1986, though the component has not been made fully operational. The marine waters of the south of the island were developed to model a fully operative management programme. This marine space, referred to as the Soufriere-Scottshead Marine Reserve (SSMR), was developed to avoid user conflicts between traditional users (fishermen) and new entrants in the water-sports sector of the tourism industry. However, the growing number of land mining operations concentrated on the west coast of the island cause worries. Approximately 18 fishing communities are directly affected by the impact of land mining operation.
Dominica has abundant water resources. The island contains an extensive network of surface and underground water and is interspersed with rivers, waterfalls and lakes. Rainfall associated with the passage of tropical weather systems is an important source of freshwater. Dominica’s freshwater resource is managed by the Ministry of Agriculture. Safe pipe borne water is provided to the population mainly by the Dominica Water and Sewerage Company (DOWASCO). Given the high quality of Dominica’s water, there is important potential for exports of bulk and bottled water from Dominica. Products are marketed mainly in the domestic market but also exported to the regional markets. Negotiations of joint-venture arrangement with companies of the U.S and France are currently being undertaken. These developments may suggest that the fresh water industry can play a significant role in Dominica’s development in the medium term. However, Dominica’s water resources also face a multiplicity of risks from natural and manmade causes. The country’s vulnerability to natural disasters results in soil erosion, sedimentation, and a reduction in basal flow may reduce the quantity and quality of Dominica’s fresh water. The continued use of dangerous chemicals in agricultural production and the developments in infrastructure and tourism pose manmade risks. An overall management of water is essential to the sustainable development of Dominica’s water resources. In this regard, some policies of water resources exploitation rents have been implemented in Dominica.
A National Land Use Plan (NLUP) has been undertaken in Dominica. 25% of Dominica’s forest lands are legally protected either as forest reserves or National Parks. Dominica has two declared Government Forest Reserves namely the Central Forest Reserve (410 hectares) established in 1951 and the Northern Forest Reserve (5,475 hectares) established in 1977. Three National Parks have been designated: the Morne Trois Pitons National Park (6,872 hectares) was established in 1975, the Cabrits National Park (5,388 hectares) was established in 1986, and the Morne Diablotin National Park (3,335 hectares) was established in 2000. Dominica’s rich volcanic soils are usually well watered by numerous streams and rivers. The terrain is very rugged and steep. The high mountains and deep ravines are covered in rich tropical forests. Only a relatively small proportion of the land area is considered available for agriculture. Dominica's youthful and fragile forest landscape makes it susceptible to the effects of land degradation. For the year 2007-2008, mining and quarrying, major export-oriented activities, were among the three sectors of Dominica’s economy. Many coastal ridges and mountains along with portions of Dominica’s largest river (Layou River) are major mining centres. However, the runoffs from the mining facilities on land are having devastating impacts on the marine ecosystem.
Like other oil-importing countries, Dominica is vulnerable to oil price fluctuations. The rising world oil prices starting in 2004 brought an economic shock for Dominica. On the positive side, this has resulted in a focus of alternative energy in the country in recent years. Potential of geo-thermal energy has been discovered in Dominica, and the economic feasibility of this potential is being examined. The Regulatory Commission for electricity and energy, the utilization of the licensing and tax system, and encouraging policies to private enterprises are currently being established. Two separate entities have been granted permission to undertake land based, geothermal exploration activities with the goal of reducing petroleum hydrocarbon usage in electricity generation and a consequent reduction in emissions. Based on the amount of geothermal resources in Dominica, a considerable amount can be sold to the neighboring French departments of Guadeloupe and Martinique. This potential exportation may contribute to economic development in the midterm.
The Dominica Tourism 2010 Policy is seeking to implement strategic actions in the medium-term. The Government has also engaged the Bureau of Standards in the development of tourism standards and certification processes. Tourism has the potential for the most rapid growth in Dominica’s economy because of its comparative advantages and the current low stage of the sector’s development. Different from many other countries in the region, Dominica’s tourism is focused mainly on the eco-tourism product rather than the traditional “sun, sea and sand” (SSS) image. The natural resources, the cultural and heritage resources are important components of the tourism package. In addition, though Dominica does not promote the island as a beach destination, the tourism sector is highly dependent on activities in coastal areas.
Dominica’s Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan was approved in January 2002. Biodiversity growth targets towards 2010 were set to maintain and enhance resilience of biodiversity to adapt to climate change. Dominica possesses an extensive range of terrestrial and marine biodiversity. Sixty-five percent of the island area is covered by natural vegetation ranging from dry scrub woodland on the west coast to lush, tropical rain forest in the interior and a wide variety of fauna and flora. Some 155 families, 672 genera and 1226 species of vascular plants have been identified on the island. Illegal trafficking of certain wildlife species out of the state has became a heightened concern. To address this issue, a workshop of stakeholders was held recently.
SUMMARY OF STATEMENTS BY SIDS LEADERS AT THE PLENARY OF THE 2012 THIRD WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (RIO+20)
PREPARED BY OHRLLS SUMMARY The 2012 Third World Summit on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), saw 36 representatives and heads of state from Small Island Developing States (SIDS) take to the floor during the Plenary Session to deliver statements on a range of issues of importance and relevance to them. Of the 36 SIDS representatives, 10 were Heads of State while 10 were Heads of Government making up 26% of the 77 Heads of State and Heads of Government who addressed the Plenary...
13 May 2013 |
7 May 2013: The UNFCCC Secretariat has released a miscellaneous document containing the views of parties in ten submissions on matters referred to in paragraphs 44-47 of decision 1/CP.18, including information, experience and good practice relevant to the design and operation of various approaches on market and non-market mechanisms(FCCC/SBSTA/2013/MISC.11). Submissions were presented by the following parties: Bangladesh, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Fiji...
01 May 2013 |
26 April 2013: The Commonwealth Secretariat hosted representatives of very small States in a meeting on the specific challenges that micro-States face in delivering sustainable development. Discussions focused on governance, policy and public administration in micro-States. The meeting took place from 23-25 April 2013, in London, UK, and addressed, among other agenda items, the promotion of access to finance for adapting to climate change. As an outcome, the Commonwealth Secretariat will...
National focal point for sustainable development:
Environmental Coordinating Unit, Ministry of Agriculture and the Environment